Auli is a ski destination in Chamoli district in the Himalayan mountains of Uttarakhanda, India. Auli, also known as Auli Bugyal, in Garhwali, which means "meadow", is located at an elevation of 2,500 metres (8,200 ft) to 3,050 metres (10,010 ft) above sea level. After the creation of the state of Uttarakhand, formerly part of Uttar Pradesh, Auli was marketed as a tourist destination. Auli lies on the way to the Hindu pilgrimage destination of Badrinath. It is surrounded by coniferous and oak forests, with a panoramic view of the peaks of the Himalayas. The slopes are intended for both professional skiers and novices. The Garhwal Mandal Vikas Nigam Limited (GMVNL) a state govt agency which takes care of this resort, and Uttarakhand Tourism Department conduct winter sports competitions at Auli to encourage skiing in India. It has a 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) cable car, a chairlift and a ski lift, along with a maintained trek route. There is a training facility of Indo-Tibetan Border Police. A small Hindu temple connected with the Hindu epic the Ramayana is also present.
Agra is a city on the banks of the river Yamuna in the northern state of Uttar Pradesh, India. It is 378 kilometres (235 mi) west of the state capital, Lucknow, 206 kilometres (128 mi) south of the national capital New Delhi and 125 kilometres (78 mi) north of Gwalior. With a population of 1,686,993 (2013 est.), Agra is one of the most populous cities in Uttar Pradesh, and the 19th most populous in India.
Agra is a major tourist destination because of its many splendid Mughal-era buildings, most notably the Tāj Mahal, Agra Ford and Fatehpūr Sikrī, all three of which are UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Agra is included on the Golden Triangle tourist circuit, along with Delhi and Jaipur; and the Uttar Pradesh Heritage Arc, tourist circuit of UP state, along Lucknow the capital of the state and Varanasi. Agra falls within the Braj cultural region.
The city was first mentioned in the epic Mahābhārata, where it was called Agrevaṇa (derived from Sanskrit (अग्रेवण) meaning "the border of the forest").Legend ascribes the founding of the city to Raja Badal Singh, a Sikarwar Rajput king (c. 1475), whose fort, Badalgarh, stood on or near the site of the present fort. However, the 11th century Persian poet Mas'ūd Sa'd Salmān writes of a desperate assault on the fortress of Agra, then held by the Shāhī King Jayapala, by Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni. It was mentioned for the first time in 1080 AD when a Ghaznavide force captured it. Sultan Sikandar Lodī (1488–1517) was the first to move his capital from Delhi to Agra in 1506. He governed the country from here and Agra assumed the importance of the second capital. He died in 1517 and his son, Ibrāhīm Lodī, remained in power there for nine more years and several palaces, wells and a mosque were built by him in the fort during his period. Finally being defeated at the Battle of Panipat in 1526.Between 1540 and 1556, Afghans, beginning with Sher Shah Suri ruled the area. It achieved fame as the capital of the Mughal Empire from 1556 to 1658.
Delhi , Hindustani pronunciation: Dilli, officially the National Capital Territory of Delhi, is a city and a union territory of India. It is bordered by Haryana on three sides and by Uttar Pradesh to the east. It is the most expansive city in India—about 1,484 square kilometres (573 sq mi). It has a population of about 25 million, making it the second most populous city after Mumbai and most populous urban agglomeration in India and 3rd largest urban area in the world. Urban expansion in Delhi has caused it to grow beyond the NCT to incorporate towns in neighbouring states. At its largest extent, there is a population of about 25 million residents as of 2014. According to data released by Oxford Economics, Delhi NCR urban agglomeration has replaced Mumbai Metropolitan Region urban agglomeration as the economic capital of India. However the comparison of the figures specific to the Metropolis of Delhi and Metropolis of Mumbai was not provided by this institution. These figures however did not match with those revealed by the reserve bank of India, The economic survey of India, The economic survey of Delhi.
Delhi has been continuously inhabited since the 6th century BC. Through most of its history, Delhi has served as a capital of various kingdoms and empires. It has been captured, ransacked and rebuilt several times, particularly during the medieval period, and modern Delhi is a cluster of a number of cities spread across the metropolitan region.
Delhi and its urban region have been given the special status of National Capital Region (NCR) under the Constitution of India's 69th Amendment Act of 1991. The NCR includes the neighbouring cities of Faridabad, Gurgaon, Noida, Ghaziabad, Greater Faridabad, Greater Noida, Bahadurgarh, Sonepat, Panipat, Karnal, Rohtak, Bhiwani, Rewari, Baghpat, Meerut, Muzaffarnagar, Alwar, Bharatpur and other nearby towns. A union territory, the political administration of the NCT of Delhi today more closely resembles that of a state of India, with its own legislature, high court and an executive council of ministers headed by a Chief Minister. New Delhi is jointly administered by the federal government of India and the local government of Delhi, and is the capital of the NCT of Delhi. Delhi hosted the first and ninth Asian Games in 1951and 1982 respectively, 1983 NAM Summit, 2010 Men's Hockey World Cup, 2010 Commonwealth Games, 2012 BRICS Summit and was one of the major host cities of the 2011 Cricket World Cup.
The construction of Qutb Minar was commissioned by Qutb-ud-din Aibak, the founder of the Delhi Sultanate in 1192 AD. The minar was built on the ruins of the Lal Kot, the Red Citadel in the city of Dhillika. Aibak's successor Iltutmish added three more storeys to complete the tower.
It has not been established with certainty whether Qutb Minar has been named after Qutb-ud-din Aibak, the emperor who commissioned its construction or Qutbuddin Bakhtiar Kaki, the famous Sufi saint.
The culture of tower architecture was established in India before the arrival of the Turks. However, there is no evidence on record to confirm that the Qutb Minar was inspired or influenced by earlier Rajput towers.Numerous inscriptions in Parso-Arabic and Nagari characters in different sections of the Qutb Minar reveal the history of its construction. According to the inscriptions on its surface it was repaired by Firoz Shah Tughlaq (1351–89) and Sikandar Lodi (1489–1517).
The Quwwat-ul-Islam Mosque, located to the north of Qutb Minar, was built by Qutb-ud-din Aibak in 1192. It is one of the earliest surviving mosque in the Indian subcontinent. Later, an arched screen was erected and the mosque was enlarged by Iltutmish (1210–35) and Ala-ud-din Khilji.
According to a Persian inscription still on the inner eastern gateway, the mosque was built by the parts of twenty-seven destroyed Hindu and Jain temples built previouslyduring Tomars and Prithvi Raj Chauhan, and leaving certain parts of the temple outside the mosque proper. Historical records compiled by Muslim historian Maulana Hakim Saiyid Abdul Hai attest to the iconoclasm of Qutb-ud-din Aibak. This pattern of iconoclasm was common during his reign, although an argument goes that such iconoclasm was motivated more by politics than by religion.
However, many historians were unanimous regarding the fact that Qutb ud-Din Aibaq like many other Muslim rulers, had a pathological bigotry and distaste towards henotheistic values, and intolerance on cultures considered anathema in Islamic dogma, which had impelled him to vandalise those historic monuments.
The topmost storey was damaged by lightning in 1368 A.D. and was rebuilt by Firoz Shah Tughlaq . Firoz Shah Tughlaq built two floors one of which can be distinguished easily as it was built of white marble. In 1505, an earthquake damaged Qutb Minar and the damage was repaired by Sikander Lodi. On 1 September 1803, a major earthquake, possibly in Garhwal Kumaun Himalaya, again caused serious damage to Qutb Minar. Major Robert Smith of the British Indian Army renovated the tower in 1828 and installed a cupola to the top of Qutb Minar. The cupola was taken down in 1848, under instructions from The Viscount Hardinge, then Governor General of India and was installed to the east of Qutab Minar, where it rests now .
and verses from the Qur'an. The Minar comprises several superposed flanged and cylindrical shafts, separated by balconies carrying Muqarnas corbels. The first three storeys are made of red sandstone; the fourth, fifth and sixth storeys are made of marble and sandstone. At the foot of the tower is the Quwwat ul Islam Mosque. The minar tilts just over 65 cm from the vertical, which is considered to be within safe limits, although experts have stated that monitoring is needed in case rainwater seepage further weakens the foundation.
Calligraphy on Qutb Minar as seen from bottom up
The nearby 7 meters high Iron Pillar from Gupta empire is a metallurgical curiosity. The pillar standing in the Qutb complex has Brahmic inscriptions on it and predates the Islamic minar.
The Lotus Temple, located in Delhi, India, is a Bahá'í House of Worship completed in 1986. Notable for its flowerlike shape, it serves as the Mother Temple of the Indian subcontinent and has become a prominent attraction in the city. Like all Bahá'í Houses of Worship, the Lotus Temple is open to all, regardless of religion or any other qualification. The building is composed of 27 free-standing marble-clad "petals" arranged in clusters of three to form nine sides, with nine doors opening onto a central hall with height of slightly over 40 metres and a capacity of 2,500 people. The Lotus Temple has won numerous architectural awards and been featured in hundreds of newspaper and magazine articles. A 2001 CNN report referred to it as the most visited building in the world.
Bangkok (English pronunciation :BANGKOK is the capital and most populous city of Thailand. It is known in Thai as Krung Thep Maha Nakhon (กรุงเทพมหานคร, pronounced or simply Krung Thep The city occupies 1,568.7 square kilometres (605.7 sq mi) in the Chao Phraya River delta in Central Thailand, and has a population of over 8 million, or 12.6 percent of the country's population. Over 14 million people (22.2 percent) live within the surrounding Bangkok Metropolitan Region, making Bangkok an extreme primate city, significantly dwarfing Thailand's other urban centres in terms of importance. There are 581 high-rise buildings in the city, ranking number 5 in the world.
Bangkok traces its roots to a small trading post during the Ayutthaya Kingdom in the 15th century, which eventually grew in size and became the site of two capital cities: Thonburi in 1768 and Rattanakosin in 1782. Bangkok was at the heart of the modernization of Siam –later renamed Thailand – during the late 19th century, as the country faced pressures from the West. The city was at the centre of Thailand's political struggles, throughout the 20th century, as the country abolished absolute monarchy, adopted constitutional rule and underwent numerous coups and several uprisings. The city grew rapidly during the 1960s through the 1980s and now exerts a significant impact among Thailand's politics, economy, education, media and modern society.
The Asian investment boom in the 1980s and 1990s led many multinational corporations to locate their regional headquarters in Bangkok. The city is now a major regional force in finance and business. It is an international hub for transport and health care, and has emerged as a regional centre for the arts, fashion and entertainment. The city is well known for its vibrant street life and cultural landmarks, as well as its notorious red-light districts. The historic Grand Palace and Buddhist temples including Wat Arun and Wat Pho stand in contrast with other tourist attractions such as the nightlife scenes of Khaosan Road and Patpong. Bangkok is among the world's top tourist destinations. It is named the most visited city in MasterCard's Global Destination Cities Index, and was named "World's Best City" for four consecutive years by Travel + Leisure magazine.
Bangkok's rapid growth amidst little urban planning and regulation has resulted in a haphazard cityscape and inadequate infrastructure systems. Limited roads, despite an extensive expressway network, together with substantial private car usage, have resulted in chronic and crippling traffic congestion. This in turn caused severe air pollution in the 1990s. The city has since turned to public transport in an attempt to solve this major problem. Five rapid transit lines are now in operation, with more systems under construction or planned by the national government and the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration.
Thailand Prathet Thai, pronounced officially the Kingdom of Thailand Ratcha-anachak Thai formerly known as Siam . THAILAND is a country at the centre of the Indochinese peninsula in Southeast Asia. With a total area of approximately 513,000 km2 (198,000 sq mi), Thailand is the world's 51st-largest country. It is the 20th-most-populous country in the world, with around 66 million people. The capital and largest city is Bangkok.
Thailand is a constitutional monarchy and has switched between parliamentary democracy and military junta for decades, the latest coup being in May 2014 by the National Council for Peace and Order. Its capital and most populous city is Bangkok. It is bordered to the north by Myanmar and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, and to the west by the Andaman Sea and the southern extremity of Myanmar. Its maritime boundaries include Vietnam in the Gulf of Thailand to the southeast, and Indonesia and India on the Andaman Sea to the southwest.
The Thai economy is the world's 20th largest by GDP at PPP and the 27th largest by nominal GDP. It became a newly industrialised country and a major exporter in the 1990s. Manufacturing, agriculture, and tourism are leading sectors of the economy, It is considered a middle power in the region and around the world.